- page numeration and typography
- consistency of spellings and hyphenation
- adhering to, or creating, a text style guide
- cross-checking headings with table of contents
- cross-checking references within the text to other parts and end matter (appendices, index, etc)
- suitability of the text for intended audience (Is the language at the appropriate register? Do any terms need explanation?)
- word/page limits – some texts may need to be shortened
- heading and sub-heading structure, creation of glossaries, lists of table and figures
- content: what is missing/unnecessary?; is content ordered logically?; is natural flow interrupted by lengthy digressions?
- sentence and paragraph length must be tailored to the intended audience
- spelling of names of people and places
- flagging up breaches of copyright, plagiarism, libel, obscenity, incitement to discrimination/hatred of a particular group
Also called substantive editing, this involves the extensive rewriting and restructuring of text, and requires much more time and discussion with the author.